The beginning of a project lays the groundwork for the rest of the project. The purpose of this phase is to set the framework for the project, which involves:
- Traditional SDLC based Waterfall Model
- Iterative Spiral Model
- Rational Unified Process
- Agile Process model
- Scrum Process
Traditional SDLC based Waterfall Model
Traditional Waterfall Methodology primarily takes care of the analysis phase, then the designing phase, and then the implementation phase to follow, with testing carrying out the whole process. All the phases have definite entry and exit criteria. The transition of this stage is triggered through management decision point by approving the phase end deliverables. This framework is called the Waterfall Model because each phase runs naturally into the next one like water over a series of falls.
This model works out as a best suite when the requirements freeze upfront and are well-documented with no uncertainty in the scope. It is usually used to execute small scale projects.
Iterative Spiral Model
Iterative and Incremental Development is a product development and management methodology that permits iterative project development and cyclic progress assessment. This development methodology is derived from the well documented 'helix / iterative' software engineering models.
The whole project cycle is sub divided into vertical segments, called 'slices' and each slice calls for a deliverable. Each slice is developed individually using the 'waterfall model'. Developers will analyze, design, code and test in a rigid loop.
Slice partitioning is done up front, with the selection criteria like:
- The slices should be vertical, meaning they should not be sub-systems. Slices should cut across as much of the functionality of the system as possible, being tangible sets of functionality that allow the user to get a look and feel. Slices should represent features. In case of schedule slippages, certain functionality releases may be differed
- Slices should be executable and demonstrable
- A slice should typically take a few weeks to complete
This lets a concrete part of the project to be complete at the end of a slice. The complete testing is carried out in each of the iterations. This methodology facilitates better risk management, better control on the project schedule through better monitoring and corrective actions in the early hours and better requirements management in an incremental mode.
This methodology facilitates requirement evolution in the development process as well as helps in managing larger projects.
Rational Unified Process
The Unified Process is not simply a process, but rather an extensible framework which can and should be customized for specific organizations and/or projects. The Rational Unified Process is, similarly, a customizable framework.
Agile Process model
Agile Process model is lightweight and highly disciplined process model that consists of simple parallel steps – Analysis of the system requirement, Design and planning, Implementation, and Integration.
The main properties of Agile Development which makes it so effective are –
- Small Timeline
- Concrete and continuous feedback
- Incremental approach for planning
- Short Documentation
- Flexibility in Development process schedule
- Refined Team
Activities performed in Agile Processes are frequently concurrent and repeated often. Agile model makes it very simple for the team to meet the changing requirements of clients and it is also useful to deliver tailored solutions in less amount of time. The Agile solutions are more relevant, more secured and cost-effective.
Major benefits obtained from Agile Process Model –
- Approval of changing requirements of clients during total life cycle of the project
- Frequent delivery by the team members
- Continuous communication of clients with all the team members during the project
- Priority based on customer satisfaction
- Rapid development with more significance
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Under Scrum process model, the project is divided into work cadences that are known as sprints. At the end of each sprint, client and project team members meet to review and calculate the progress of a project and also to plan about the future steps. At the time of initiating the project, there is no need to provide detailed descriptions of how everything would be carried out. Basically there are three main roles in a Scrum Model –
- Product Owner: It is the responsibility of the product owner to communicate the whole idea of the product to be developed to the development team. All the requirements and prioritization from the start should be conveyed step-by-step to the team. Product owner is always a single individual.
- Scrum Master: Scrum Master acts as a coach of a team, helping team members to perform at their highest level and achieve each sprint goals. Scrum Master acts as an associate between the Product Owner and the team.
- Team Member: The team is responsible for the successful completion of the work which consists of designers, software engineers, analysts, QA experts, programmers, testers, and architects. An ideal team consists of in all seven team members.
Scrum is an agile software development model based on multiple small sprints. At the end of every sprint – the required function is coded; the function is tested; and then it is integrated into the developing product. A sprint review is then conducted where the whole team demonstrates the new feature to the Product Owner and collects the feedbacks for the same.
Mostly, Scrum model is used for medium and large software projects. The scrum process runs by a long way and only ends when there are no additional requirements or if the product is being abandoned.